Astigmatism is a common vision condition that causes blurred vision. It occurs when the cornea (the clear front cover of the eye) is irregularly shaped or sometimes because of the curvature of the lens inside the eye.
An irregularly shaped cornea or lens prevents light from focusing properly on the retina, the light-sensitive surface at the back of the eye. As a result, vision becomes blurred at any distance. This can lead to eye discomfort and headaches.
Astigmatism frequently occurs with other vision conditions like myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness). Together these vision conditions are referred to as refractive errors because they affect how the eyes bend or “refract” light.
There are many causes to astigmatism. It can be hereditary and is usually present from birth. It can decrease or increase over time.
A comprehensive optometric examination will include testing for astigmatism. If necessary, your optometrist can provide eyeglasses or contact lenses that correct the astigmatism by altering the way light enters the eyes.
Another option for treating astigmatism is a corneal procedure called orthokeratology (ortho-k). In this painless, noninvasive procedure, the patient wears a series of specially designed rigid contact lenses to gradually reshape the curvature of the cornea.
Laser surgery can also treat some types of astigmatism. The laser changes the shape of the cornea by removing a small amount of eye tissue.
The curvature of the cornea and lens bends the light entering the eye in order to focus it precisely on the retina at the back of the eye. In astigmatism, the surface of the cornea or lens has a somewhat different curvature.
the surface of the cornea is shaped more like a football instead of round like a basketball, the eye is unable to focus light rays to a single point. Vision becomes out of focus at any distance.
In addition, the curvature of the lens inside the eye can change, resulting in an increase or decrease in astigmatism. This change frequently occurs in adulthood and can precede the development of naturally occurring cataracts.
Sometimes astigmatism may develop following an eye injury or eye surgery.
Astigmatism also occurs due to a relatively rare condition called keratoconus in which the cornea becomes progressively thinner and cone-shaped. This results in a large amount of astigmatism, which causes poor vision that cannot be clearly corrected with eyeglasses. People with keratoconus usually need contact lenses for clear vision and eventually may need a corneal transplant.
An optometrist can diagnose an astigmatism through a comprehensive eye examination. Testing for astigmatism measures how the eyes focus light and determines the power of any optical lenses needed to improve vision. This examination may include:
With the information from these tests, your optometrist can determine if you have astigmatism. Your optometrist will use these findings, combined with those of other tests performed, to determine the power of any lens correction you need to provide clear, comfortable vision. Once testing is complete, your optometrist can discuss treatment options.
People with astigmatism have several options to regain clear vision. They include:
If you have an astigmatism, you have a wide range of options to correct your vision problem. In consultation with your optometrist, you can select the treatment that best meets your visual and lifestyle needs.